MALAWI ENGANGEMENT GROUP (MAENGA)
OBJECTIVES, MEMBERSHIP, CODE OF CONDUCT AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSIONS
Table of Contents
Objectives of MAENGA
Membership of MAENGA
Code of Conduct
Time Table for Change
Summary of Initial Topics Discussed
Topic 1: What Should be done to increase Private Investment
Topic 2: Malawians and Mass Participation in Protests
Part of Government Accountability
Topic 3: Government Separation of Powers
Topic 4: The Constitution of Malawi and Powers of the
Topic 5: The Content and Quality of Education in Malawi
Topic 6: The Vision of Malawi for the next 10 years
Topic 7: Freedom of Access to Information
Topic 8: Role of ADMARC in Reducing Rural Poverty
Topic 9: Women’s Rights and Issues
Topic 10: Vision for Majority Ownership of Businesses
by Malawians in the next 10 years
Topic: 11: Political Development in the Next 10 years
MALAWI ENGAGEMENT GROUP: OBJECTIVES, MEMBERSHIP, CODE OF CONDUCT AND SUMMRY OF DISCUSSIONS
- Malawi has been in the Press for all the wrong reasons for some time. The dream of a better Malawi that was supposed to be realised after the end of the one-Party rule in 1994, turned into a nightmare to this day. The democratic dispensation has been side tracked into a gravy train of plunder of public resources, greed on the part of those entrusted with state power. Such is the scale of official lawlessness that an international scandal of international proportion known as “Cashgate” resulted in a drying of donor aid to Malawi. The youth are alienated from their government, their future is uncertain and in doubt.
- It is in this context that through his many initiatives and comments, Mr Jumah proposed the formation of what he called “Malawi Engagement Group” (MAENGA). This is how he described the objective of MAENGA: “In looking into the future we have to focus on the present, in focusing into greater future we must revisit our steps from where we are coming from…” …….”Malawi’s future was misdirected on the 2oth May,1994”…… “The youth of today want to restart, remake, reconstitute and re-do what was made wrongly.”….” In doing this we are asking for the listening ears of the President himself, the leader of opposition and all political parties more particularly the quasi-religious group PAC………”. “The youth of Malawi want to engage all stakeholders and start talking so that the new better future is hatched.”
- Mr Jumah then appealed “to all citizens as well as media houses —-–-to take us seriously and listen to us because the future is in our hands and therefore there can never be something for us without us”.
- This first Report of the Group covers the objectives of Maenga,its membership, code of conduct and summary of the initial discussions.
- Objectives of MAENGA
- The goal of MAENGA is to contribute towards the creation of a better Malawi. This task is implemented by:
- Examining what morally, socially, politically and economically went wrong over the past 53 years;
- Understanding and analysing why our country is still in a mess after 53 years of Independence
- Following events of the present and suggesting what needs to be done/changed in various areas in order to create a better future including (but not exhaustively):
- Political culture and governance
- Social Development and culture
- Economic development
- Civic Education on the relationship between the people and their government; constitutional rights; and citizen activism in ensuring good governance covering transparency, accountability and public recourse
- Disseminate the proposed changes that need to be made to all stake holders: Government, Political parties, Members of Parliament, the media (newspapers, radio and television), Civic authorities, traditional authorities, Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) especially, Churches, Public Affairs Committee and other pressure groups, and the general population.
- Membership of MAENGA
- In short, in its task of pointing out “what went wrong without fear, and suggest “solution and seek its implementation’’ MAENGA invited and challenged “all critical thinkers, critical planners, critical analysers, critical debaters and all those who think they are intelligent” to join the platform.
- Code of Conduct
- The following code of conduct is to be followed by MAENGA members:
- “No one will be allowed to castigate, insult, molest, threaten, harass, scare anyone or interfere with any discussion”
- The platform is not affiliated to any political party but is exclusively intended to champion patriotism and citizenship
- Time Table for Change
- It is MAENGA’s goal to see the creation of a new and better Malawi in the next 24 months.
- SUMMARY OF INITIAL TOPICS DISCUSSED
- As a first instalment, the topics below were selected for discussion by members. This section presents the topics together with a brief background and summary responses. It should be noted that the responses are diverse and in some cases, contradict each other on a particular issue. This is what is deliberately encouraged in this first round of responses. Consensus recommendation/opinion on a topic/issue will be dealt with by Special Committees at a later stage. It will be the consensus recommendation/opinion that will be adopted as MAENGA’s position.
- The topics focussed on promotion of unity, membership of Ministers in Executive Branch and parliament; investment promotion policy (citizen and non-citizen), Political Development; citizen participation in ensuring government accountability through mass action, issues of national unity, education, role of women and women issues; Malawi’s socio-economic indicators and related issues.
Topic 1: What should be done to Increase Private Investment in Malawi
Unemployment is a very serious challenge in Malawi. This can be solved by business activity which can only take place by attracting/encouraging investment. But investment must also mean citizens taking control of their economy. No meaningful development can be sustained with reliance on foreign investors only. Foreign control of the economy means foreign political control. Many countries (India, China, Korea Philippines and others) reserve areas of business for citizens; some for joint ventures and others can be wholly owned by foreigners.
Questions/Area of Interest:
- Promoting Investment by Citizens Resident in Malawi
- Citizens should be given tax breaks to start businesses
- Areas of investment by citizens should depend on the person’s financial assets. Those with more financial assets should invest in high investment businesses
- Interest rates should be low to make it possible for citizens to borrow to finance businesses
- Establish a Citizen Small Business Agency to provide low interest/interest free loans and special attention should be given to women business development
- Establish a Small Business Plans and Mentoring Agency to assist in preparations of business plans, mentoring and monitoring of small businesses
- Establish a development Corporation (preferably public-private joint venture) to finance large projects
(b) Attracting Investment from Malawians in Diaspora
- Give them tax breaks
- Interest rates should be low to encourage investment
- Equipment and machinery should be brought in tax free
- Create a Special Ministry/Unit to attract investment from Malawians in Diaspora
- Malawi Mission abroad must actively interact with Malawians in Diaspora regarding their investment plans back home and provide them with the necessary information
(c) Attracting Investment by Non-Citizens
- Non-citizens can wholly own farms, factories and plantations
- Government must improve economic management and policy; eliminate corruption in order to attract non-citizen investment
- Government must establish a one-stop shop agency to facilitate processing of foreign investment applications and business establishment to reduce red-tape
(d) Should some businesses be reserved for citizens (those in Malawi and those in Diaspora)?
- Foreigners should not have businesses in real estate, retail, saloons cafeteria, forestry, fishing
(e) Should Some businesses be reserved for Joint Ventures?
- Joint ventures should be encouraged in infrastructure development:
- roads, railways, water, power
- Citizens must provide land and security while non-citizens contribute financing
- Joint ventures in farming, mining, export-import business, and machinery and equipment
- Should there be areas in which Foreigners can wholly own Businesses?
- High-tech industries and research
Topic 2: Malawians and Mass participation in Protests as part of Government Accountability
In all true democracies, the general public regularly expresses its displeasure against or support for controversial Government policies or demand government action to address an emergency. This is part of “rule by the people” in enforcing government accountability. Unfortunately, this does not happen much in Malawi with a few exceptions. This explains why, to a large extent, government feels free to do anything as it pleases much to the detriment of wellbeing of the citizens.
Questions/Area of Interest:
- Why do Malawians not protest as much/as often as happens in other countries?
- Fear of government reprisals (arrests or killing)
- Indoctrination of power of government during the one-party rule; recent killings of demonstrators
- What should be done to improve mass reactions to express disapproval of unpopular policies or lack of government action to address issues?
- Civic education on constitutional rights
- What legal support mechanism can be put in place to protect the citizens who want to sue government for some wrong-doing on the part of government?
- Law society to be more active
- Financial support for legal costs from well-wishers and NGOs
- Legal Aid must be sufficiently funded
- Why do opposition parties not lead in mass actions against bad government policies?
- Political mutual jealousy among opposition parties
- Some of them are compromised
- Lack of knowledge of constitutional rights
Topic 3: Separation of Powers
The democratic form of Government depends on Checks and balances of three branches: The Executive Branch: President supported by a Cabinet, assents/signs Bills passed by Parliament into law; can seek changes/amendments to Bills passed by Parliament; propose Bills for Parliamentary approval; implements the laws (after passage of Bills by Parliament);
The Legislative Branch: Passes Bills for assent by President to become law; holds the Executive Branch Accountable;
The Judiciary: Interprets the Laws
Ministers are both Members of the Legislative Branch as Members of Parliament (MPs) and the Executive Branch as advisors to the President. This arrangement means that Ministers are conflicted. They cannot keep the Executive Branch in check in their capacity as MPs and be part of the Executive Branch at the same time.
Questions/Areas of Interest:
- Should the Constitution be Amended to have Ministers removed as MPs?
- Constitution should be amended so that Ministers should not also be MPs just as the President and Vice President are not MPs
- Ministers and the President should be politicians with a common ideology
- The Speaker and Deputy Speaker Should also be Independent of any Political Party
- Ministers should be non-political professionals (like the USA system). A Parliamentary Committee should interview the shortlisted candidates for ministerial posts and recommend two or three names for Presidential choice
- No Minister should be sacked by the President without review by a parliamentary Committee (Constitution to be accordingly amended)
- As MPs Ministers are likely to be given preference in allocating development projects in their constituencies compared to ordinary MPs. Should Ministers be non-political appointees (simple professionals who must not belong to any party?
- Minsters are given preference in allocating projects compared to ordinary MPs
- To eliminate the bias Ministers should be simple professionals who do not belong to ant party (Constitution to be amended accordingly)
- Budgets must first be discussed with stakeholders (Labour Unions, Business Community, Committee of Traditional authorities, Youth Representatives, NGOs, etc.). After that a parliamentary Committee must appraise it. These consultations must take place before the Budget is presented to parliaments.
- There must be a policy for balanced regional development (access to water, schools/1000 of school-going age group of children; hospitals/number of nurses/doctors per 1000 of population)
Topic 4: The Constitution of Malawi and Powers of the President.
The Oath of Office taken by the President binds him/her to uphold the provisions of the Constitution of Malawi.
By disobeying the court order on the High Court not to allow Dr Chaponda to execute his official duties s Minister, the President violated the Constitution under which a court order cannot be disobeyed even by the President.
Questions/Areas of Interest:
- What should be done about the violation of the oath of Office?
- He violated the oath of office and must apologise
- He must be impeached
- What Changes (amendments) should be made to ensure that future presidents will not repeat the violation of oath of office?
- The Constitution must be amended to empower the courts to enforce/rule on violation of oath office
- Presidential immunity must be removed from the constitution
- Amend the Constitution to allow the Law Commission to petition parliament censure or move a vote of no confidence motion to impeach the president
- Amend the constitution to allow the law Society to sue the president in the constitutional court
- The Attorney-general must be summoned by the Parliamentary Legal Affairs Committee for not advising the President not to violate his oath office.
Issue: The Constitution gives the President powers to appoint Ministers and Deputy Ministers.
Questions/Areas of Interest:
- Should the number of ministers be limited by the constitution to ensure efficiency and cost-saving?
- The constitution must not limit the number of minister; the Planning Commission must do so from time to time
- Constitution must limit the number of ministers to save on cost and ensure efficiency
- Constitution must limit the number of minister in much the same way as with vice presidents
- What other cost-saving measures should be made by government?
- The post of second Vice President must be abolished (although it is not filled)
- State Houses should be limited to 4
- There should only 1 State House; 1 vacation State retreat;
- Presidential motorcade/convoy should be reduced to 3-5 vehicles and Police escort motor cycles
- Parastatal vehicles must not be obligated/commandeered for pollical rallies (any dressing of party uniform and references to a party at a meeting is a political rally
- There must be a distinction between (official engagements to do with government duties must never be associated with party slogans).
Topic 5: The Content and Quality of Education in Malawi
The quality of human capital is the most valuable resource for any country. It determines the level of development and ultimately the quality of life of its citizens. The quality of education is central to the development and nurturing of this human capital.
In recent years Malawi’s quantity and quality of education has deteriorated drastically.
Questions/areas of Interest:
- What is the current content of Malawi’s Education?
- Pre-schools: There are no government pre-schools. This is a very serious gap as this is a crucial period in the development of the child to develop basic skills of eye-hand coordination; through drawing; observation; expanding their curiosity (development of a scientific mind)
- Primary education should have strong science and maths content
- Teaching should be in local language. Children learn more quickly in their own language (Chinese, Japanese, French, Arabs, Indians, etc. teach their children in their local languages
- English, Portuguese French should be taught as subjects
- Secondary education teaches science and maths but not much practical subjects. This must be done to encourage creativity and inventiveness
- Choice should be made between more science/maths/technology and humanities (history, literatures, geography civics, poetry, drama)
- Tertiary Education: Subjects taught are not linked to the needs of the market place or career independence to be self-employed/be an employer
- How good is the quality of education in Malawi?
- Primary school education quality is poor
- It does not teach hands-on subjects (tourism, design, visual art, dance, drama, music, business studies, etc.)
- Secondary Education is better in private schools than in Government schools
- There is stress on white collar jobs not hands-on skills (tourism, design, visual art, dance, drama, music, business studies, etc.)
- Tertiary Education (university) quality is not good. There is no teaching of kills that enable the students to become independent self-employed individuals; or be creative.
- How can both the Content and Quality of Education be Improved?
- More practical-type of education than theory (designing/repairing products like TVs, cellular phones, crop production, etc.)
- More technical training institutions
- The student-teacher ratio is very high in all institutions (50/1 in many cases); it should be reduced to 10/1
- Infrastructure (laboratories, libraries, video conferencing, e-education) must be promoted and encouraged/put in place
- Equipment like computers and other learning aids must be made available from pre-school all the way up to university level (e.g. Rwanda education has introduced digital education system right from primary schools)
- Government must organise science, research and inventor competitions and awards for secondary schools and universities
- Design curricula for secondary schools and universities in consultations with the business sector
- Private businesses must be given incentives (like tax relief) by government to take in apprentices to learn some technical skills during holidays
- Should Malawi have a quota system in Enrolment in State Universities?
- Quota system is inevitable for no due to the few number of government funded tertiary education institutions
- More universities should be built to avoid the quota system
- There should be no quota system. It lowers the standards of education excellence
- Enrolment should be strictly on merit (since government universities are funded by tax payers’ money)
- The quota system is unconstitutional since it discriminates based on region
- Should Malawi have Elite Universities?
- Yes, Government must establish elite universities that can teach subjects that will be more challenging to the average student
- The country has very gifted young people (geniuses) who must be challenged to reach their full potential (in various fields).
Topic 6: Vision for the next 10 years
It is impossible to plan for a better future without assessing the current position and chart road map of desired targeted benchmarks in the period ahead. It is through such planning that national resources (Human, financial and natural) can be mobilised and deployed in a discipline and consistent manner to achieve desired national objectives.
It is said that where there is no vision people perish. Malawi has no published and widely accepted vision of where the country is headed even 10 years from now.
- 65 % literacy to be raised to 80 percent
- Malae literacy rate of 73% to be raised to 83 %
- Female literacy rate of 59% to be increased to equal that of males (83%)
(b) Poverty Reduction
- 75 % of Malawians live below the poverty line (less than US $ 1.25 per day). The poverty rate should be reduced to 45% in 10 years
- 90% live on less than US $ 2 per day; this should be reduced to 50%
(c) Mortality Rates
- Reduce mortality rate to 20 per 1000 live births from66 per 1000 live births in 2010
- Maternity mortality rates worsened in 2015. This should be reduced to zero
(d) Disease Control
- Control HIV infections
- Eliminate malaria
- Eliminate TB
- No malnutrition deaths
- Reduce life-style diseases
- Eliminate cholera
- 3 000 children of diarrhoea due to bad water reduce to ZERO
(e) Life expectancy
- To increase from 58.3 years (2014, ranking number 165 in the world) to 65 years in 10 years
- Number of doctors to increase from 1 per 50 000 of population to 1 doctor per 10 000 of population in 10 years
- 2 million people were undernourished in 2012; this should be reduced to zero
- 48 % of children under 5 years were undernourished in 2010 this should be eliminated to ZERO
- Access to Potable Water
- 13 % of the population has no access to face drinking water; reduce this to ZERO
- 69% have no treated water; reduce to 20%
- 48% of the rural population travel for 30 minutes to fetch water; reduce thus to ZERO
- 47% of the population have no access to sanitation; reduce to 10%
Topic 7: Freedom of Access to Information
No nation can develop without free access to information. Now that the Access to Freedom of Information Act is in Effect Issues of Investigative reporting should serve the country well
The country fully taking advantage of the law
Questions/Areas of Interest:
- What type of Information should the Press be regularly publishing?
- The Press must dig up the information on the 13 files held by the Attorney-General on Cashgate to reveal who was implicated/involved
- Historical information must come out about the abduction of Orton Chirwa
- The truth about the Life of Dr Banda must be revealed
- Auditor-General’s reports must indicate expenditure management results of all sections of government including State House
- Appointments to various civil service positions and statutory corporations must be cross-checked to ascertain nepotism, tribalism or regionalism
- Contributions by who and how much to political parties must be investigated
- The cost of foreign trips by the President and ministers must be published
- How must it costs to keep the many State Houses and what they are USED FOR must be published?
- All information about contracts for projects (especially cost over-runs) must be known
- Information about the sale proceeds (how much and what they were used for) for Malawi Savings Bank must be known
Topic 8: Role of ADMARC in Reducing Rural Poverty
Rural poverty is endemic in Malawi. Since the majority of people (80%) earn their livelihood from agriculture ADMARC was created to assist farmers easily access market for their produce, more readily access agricultural inputs and purchase food at affordable prices in the event of food shortage. In general, by giving price incentives to farmers and assisting them with inputs, more agricultural output would be produced, poverty would be reduced.
In recent years, ADMARC has been corrupted; food is more expense than that from private vendors, availability of food is uncertain and agricultural inputs are rarely available for purchase by farmers. The Mission of ADMARC has been side tracked.
Questions/Areas of Interest:
- Should ADMARC continue to be a Government company the way it is now or be converted into a people’s co-operative?
- It should be a board or a cooperative of farmers who can control the pricing
- It should be part of the Ministry of Agriculture. But the ministry should continue to provide extension services
- ADMARC must be abolished
- ADMARC must be turned into a joint venture with 60% ownership by farmers and 40 % by a private company with international marketing network
- Farmers can buy shares on a voluntary basis. The farmers will appoint their representatives to the Board of ADMARC. The Private company shareholder will be more responsible for management.
- How should produce Pricing and other services be Improved?
- Crop pricing must be negotiated with farmers if ADMARC became a co-operative
- ADMARD should improve its product export marketing
- Sufficient supplies must be available at each ADMARC depot to help access to food and inputs
- ADMARC must also buy honey, fish and other products and price them appropriately to ensure incentives to farmers
- There must be a committee of the joint venture ADMARC to set crop prices
- Should ADMARC be Commercialised?
- Should ADMARC Play a Serious role in Educating Farmers?
- ADMARC should assist farmers in agricultural advisory activities (growing crops)
- A joint venture ADMARC would run short-term education programmes (seminars, demonstrations, symposia)
- ADMARD must distribute pesticides and seeds
- A joint venture ADMARC could have shares in the agricultural implements import business and/or a locally based agricultural implements manufacturing company; it can also establish an Agriculture/Farmer’s Bank which could also provide an export guarantee for farmers who export directly; play an active part in export of produce (non-perishable products including tea, tobacco, honey) or hold shares in an Agri-processing company especially for perishable items.
Topic 9: Women’s Rights and issues
Women’s rights are an integral part of Human Rights. Historically, women have been marginalised in the running of public affairs. The need to pay special attention to their socio-economic well-being has Many studies show that societies that mainstream the role of women fair better socio-economically and well-being of their families.
Although much has been done to advance the role of women in Malawi, much remains to be done.
- Women’s Representation in Political Life
- Political parties must field many women candidates in 2019 elections
- There should be more in next Government cabinet
- Malawi should implement the SADC and AU protocol of at least 50/50 representation in parliament
- Women Representation in Senior Positions in Business
- To give women a chance all advertisements must indicate that priority will be given to women for the same qualifications and job requirements
- There should be special seminars/training in leadership tailored for women
- There should be a bank specifically catering for the needs of women’s businesses
- Women Representation in senior Civil Service Positions
- Civil service senior positions must be balanced %0/50 at the minimum between men and women without compromising competence
- Awareness of Violence against women
- Women shelters should be built in in major cities
- There should be a Special Police Units dealing exclusively with violence against women
- There is need for public education to sensitise men against the scourge of violence against women
- Girl-child Molestation and Girl-child Pregnancies
- Punishment for Girlchild molestation and pregnancy must be equivalent to rape
- Government must set aside funds for counselling/supporting the girl-child and the mother after molestation/abuse
- Special medical Needs for women
- There should be a special programme to deal with child mortality rate, pre- and post-natal depression treatment, cervical cancer screening
- Well quipped Women’s clinics/hospital Units to deal with cases over and above gynaecological services
- Inheritance Laws
- Politicians should not be involved. The will must prevail. Where there is no will, the inheritance must be shared equally between sons and daughters (the law must be amended)
- There should be civic education on matters of inheritance and constitutional rights of women
- A Law must be passed to ensure that a wife and children of the deceased have absolute right to inheritance. This must apply to marriages under customary law even those involving formal polygamy.
Topic10: Vision for Majority Ownership of Businesses by Malawians in the next 10 years
No meaningful development can be sustained depending foreign ownership of the economy. Like citizens of other countries, Malawians are entitled to the control of their resources and benefit from them. This is not discrimination against anybody, nor is it a negation of collaboration with the rest of the world. Rather it is a simple affirmation of the exercise of a right to which the citizens of Malawi are entitled to just like other peoples of the world in the respective countries.
The bulk of the economy of Malawi is controlled by foreigners and naturalised citizens. This is a colonial legacy which must be corrected. It is also a state of affairs which ensures foreign control of political decisions by virtue of the economic power held by foreigners.
- 85% ownership of land in some parts of Malawi is owned by foreigners; some estimate 81%. This must change
- There must be 51%-65% indigenous Malawi ownership of key foreign owned businesses (banks, real estate, shops, retail, wholesale, transport, mining, tourism)
- Any part of the country where a valuable resource is found (minerals, oil, etc.) the owners of the place must be compensated for disturbance and be entitled to dividends as long as the resource continues to be exploited
- An Economic Programme must be drafted that must benefit Malawians first (South Africa, Zimbabwe).
- Interest rates on loans area too high to sustain a business. Create subsidised credit and tax incentives for small and medium scale enterprises which should not be based on political grounds
- Courses in entrepreneurship must be launched
- Government to support leading entrepreneurs, innovators and inventors with National Awards
- Informal business should be given good premises from which to operate their businesses
- Re-launch a Development bank which should be a joint venture with external and local private investors.
Topic 11: Political Development in the Next 10 Years
The ushering of the democratic dispensation of Government in 1994 was supposed to a sign of maturity. It was expected that the vigour of public debates and sharing of ideas on issues of national importance would unify the people, lead to careful planning for and use of public resources for the benefit of the people. Those in leadership positions were expected to be accountable to the electorate and render faithful service to the country as a whole.
The dream of the benefits of a democratic dispensation turned into a night mare. Public resources are plundered, care for resource use turned into extravagance; hope turned into despair, accountability morphed into arrogance of power and lawlessness.
- Democratic Processes within each Party
- Political parties should not be managed as personal property of some individuals
- Leadership within a party must rotate every 5 years regardless of who formed the party. Rotation should be on a regional basis
- Leadership must be chosen democratically not based on family nepotism
- Number of Political Parties
- Not more than 5 parties preferably 2 (constitution to be amended accordingly)
- At least 10 political parties
- A political party that does not field at least 2/3 of the candidates in each category of elective office nation-wide must be de-registered No political party must be registered until it can demonstrate that it will have at least 1/3 of its members from each region to avoid regionalism
- Relationship between Political Parties
- Tolerance between members and leaders of different political parties
- Political parties should not be regionally based
- Civic education within political parties about constitutional rights
- Each year political parties must hold a conference on national unity issues only
- Unitary vs Federal Government
- Federal Government but still try to correct the ills of a unitary government
- Federal government to ensure equitable distribution of development resources
- Eliminate regionalism at Federal level through rotation of Presidency and prime Minister
- Political appointment of Chiefs what are their Roles?
- Chiefs should be politically neutral and work with the government of the day
- They should not be politically appointed but strictly based on tradition
- Their role must be traditional issues and development in their areas
- There should not be too many “Senior chiefs who cannot have the same statures as Nkosi ya makosi Mbelwa or Nkosi ya makosi Gomani. The whole system must be revisited.
- Should the President of a Party be the President of the Country?
- Yes, a president of the party which wins the elections should also be president of the country to avoid power struggle between the party president and national
- The president’s two positions must be separated. President of the country must look after the interest of the country and not have an eye on the party. He should exercise enough discretion to avoid being seen and acting as a party president. This is the case now at each meeting addressed by the President on national issues (as opposed to party issues). There are DPP colours everywhere, that puts off citizens (tax payers) that are not DPP member
- The country’s president should be more professional (CEO) of the country than a politician belonging to a particular party. In any event, he was not elected by his party members only.